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Reprinted from The American journal of philology, vol. XVIII, No.4, Dec. 1897.
|Statement||by Lionel Horton-Smith.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||452|
Download Concluding notes on the origin of the gerund and gerundive
Note 1— The gerund with a direct object is practically limited to the genitive and the ablative (without a preposition); even in these cases the gerundive is commoner. Note 2— The gerund or gerundive is often found co-ordinated with nominal constructions, and sometimes even in apposition with a noun.
in forō, in cūriā in amīcōrum perīculīs prōpulsandīs (Phil. "Further Notes on the Origin of the Gerund and Gerundive" is an article from The American Journal of Philology, Volume View more articles from The American Journal of Philology. View this article on JSTOR. View this article's JSTOR metadata.
In Latin grammar, a gerundive (/ dʒ ə ˈ r ʌ n d ɪ v /) is a verb form that functions as a verbal adjective. In Classical Latin, the gerundive is distinct in form and function from the gerund and the present active Late Latin, the differences were largely lost, resulting in a form derived from the gerund or gerundive but functioning more like a participle.
Worksheet Gerunds and Gerundives • The gerund is a verbal noun. It exists in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative. It is a neuter sg. noun. o The nominative of the verbal noun is the infinitive. • Because the gerund is a noun, it can be modified by other words.
A gerundive/ verbal adjective is harder to put into English, but is best described as ‘to be (verb)’. Here are some examples to demonstrate this more clearly: “The book was to be read” - The ‘to be read’ is the gerundive, because ‘to be read’ is describing the book.
GERUND AND GERUNDIVE I. The Gerund The Gerund is a verbal noun, always active in force. The infintive of the verbs supplies the nominative case: Legere est difficile = To read is difficult (reading is difficult) The other cases are formed by adding -nd-to the present stem of the verb (-iend-for 3rd conjugation I-stems and all 4th conjugation verbs), plus the neuter singular endings.
The closest English-language equivalents to indicate the use of the French gerund are “while,” “because”/“by” and “upon.” “While” When expressing simultaneity, the French gerund is equivalent to the English “while.” Elle boit du thé en lisant un livre.
(“She drinks tea while (simultaneously) reading a book.”). I also saw the following: 1) a subtitle with a gerund that is the last item in a series of nouns, 2) a subtitle with a pres. progressive verb(HOW CONGRESS IS FAILING I hate to keep dropping bombs; but I think that, without a noun preceding or following the verbal or verbal phrase (i.e., a noun/pronoun modified by the verbal), the verbal is.
Edit: the commenter is right. Gerunds are the -ing ones, and gerundives are the "must be done" ones. The moral of the story is not to listen to me.
The other moral is that knowing which one has which name is not that important as long as you know. Note the changes in spelling when forming the simple gerund: read» reading study» studying grow» growing relax» relaxing answer» answering write» writing; argue» arguing (a final -e is omitted) agree» agreeing (a final -ee does not change) lie» lying (a final -ie changes to -y-) put» putting; regret» regretting; readmit» readmitting (we double the final consonant if the.
The Latin gerund, in a restricted set of syntactic contexts, denotes the sense of the verb in isolation after certain prepositions, and in certain uses of the genitive, dative, and ablative cases.
It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as express such concepts, the construction with the adjectival gerundive is preferred. Using gerunds with “to be” One of the most common Concluding notes on the origin of the gerund and gerundive book that you will use with a gerund is the verb “to be” – this is the simplest way to present the gerund.
For example: “Her big fear is driving on the main roads.” Gerunds can be used in every tense in the same way. For instance. The gerund looks exactly the same as a present participle, but it is useful to understand the difference between the two.
The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb). Some uses of the gerund are covered on this page.
A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. Regarding confusion between gerund and gerundive: they look similar, and, to complicate things a little bit, a gerundive may in some situations (which I will explain later), seemingly take on the meaning of a gerund, which may cause some students trouble distinguishing between them.
The Gerund and Supine are used as follows. The Gerund is a verbal noun, corresponding in meaning to the English verbal noun in -ing (§ ). loquendī causā for the sake of speaking.
Note— The Gerund is found only in the oblique cases. A corresponding nominative is supplied by the Infinitive. gerundive (jə-rŭn′dĭv) n. A verbal adjective in Latin that in the nominative case expresses the notion of fitness or obligation and in other cases functions as a future passive participle.
[Middle English gerundif, from Late Latin gerundīvus, from gerundium, gerund; see gerund.] gerundive (dʒɪˈrʌndɪv) n (Grammar) (in Latin grammar) an. Gerunds vs. Gerundives Posted by Brittany Britanniae on in Latin Language Have you long struggled with knowing the exact forms and uses of the Latin Gerund or Gerundive.
Well, this post was created in order to aid you in all your questions about forms, translations, and grammatical uses. The Origin of the Latin Gerund and Gerundive: A New Proposal Jay H.
Jasanoff Harvard University Despite continuing attention from major scholars, the origin of the Latin gerund and gerundive in -nd-remains obscure.1 Proposals have not been wanting; Leumann ( ) gives a good summary of the older literature. IV.-THE ORIGIN OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE.
The origin of the gerund and gerundive, in spite of all the attempts of scholars, can hardly yet be considered satisfactorily elucidated.
In the American Journal of Philology, vol. IX, 2 and 4 (i), Mr. Platner set forth clearly and in detail the statistics of the use of the gerund and. Gerund as Object: I enjoy read ing. Gerund after the following verbs. admit. He admitted hav ing driven too fast. avoid. They avoid go ing on holiday on Saturdays.
carry on. If we carry on sleep ing so badly, we may need help. consider. Ralph is considering buy ing a new house. delay. I delayed tell ing Max the news. deny. She denies read. As an aside, I don't think being here is a gerund. -ing words are gerunds only if they are functioning as nouns.
Meaning they will fill in for the sentence's subject, object, or object of preposition. You might be tempted to think that being is a noun because it follows is, but this is not true.
Like all things grammar, gerunds do take a tiny bit of detective work to spot. The problem here is that present participles also end with the letters ing. Besides being able to spot gerunds, you should be able to tell the difference between a gerund and a present participle.
Let’s go back to the definition of a gerund for a moment. Historically, grammarians and linguists have made a distinction between the participle and the gerund (and sometimes the gerundial, the gerundive, or the gerundial noun). Partially this derives from earlier forms of English in which the forms had somewhat different endings.
But in Modern English there is never a difference of form in those uses. A gerund may serve virtually any noun function. For example, it can act as the subject of a sentence, as a direct object, or as the object of a preposition.
Examples of each follow: Winning the race became his obsession. (Gerundive phrase serving as the grammatical subject.) I like swimming. (Gerund serving as the direct object of the verb like.). There are four important rules to remember in this chapter: (1) Gerunds are verbal nouns; gerundives are verbal adjectives.
(2) Gerunds and gerundives are formed like future passive participles. (3) Where English will use a gerund followed by an object, Latin will use a gerundive modifying a noun.
GERUNDIVE AND GERUND Author: Owner Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 5/16/ AM Document presentation format: 如螢幕大小 Other titles: Arial 新細明體 Arial Unicode MS Times New Roman 預設簡報設計 GERUNDIVE AND GERUND GERUNDIVE GERUND Cato, quī saeculō secundō ante Chr.
vīvēbat, in fīne omnium orātiōnum. I should read this book - hic liber mihi legendus est Finally, a note on distinguishing Gerunds from Gerundives. Gramatically they are different, but in actual meaning the difference is subtle.
Grammatical Difference The Gerund is a verbal noun, that may take an accusative object. I learn by reading books - disco libros legendo. The gerund obeys the same rules for cases used with it as the verb would, since (obviously) it is a verb as well as a noun.
The gerund is virtually always active in meaning, while the gerundive (a verbal adjective) is passive in meaning. Note that the gerundive and the perfect passive participles are often translated in the same way. The genitive. The Latin gerundive is a form which has no parallel in English.
It is technically the Future Passive Participle, and it cannot be literally translated. The closest we can come to it is “(yet) to be done.” The formation and functions of the gerundive are very similar to those of the gerund, except that, as an adjective, the gerundive has all.
The gerundive enaviganda conveys both the futurity and inevitability of this sad fact with an economy that English cannot manage. The author frequently likes to use ‘bound to be’ as his English translation. Charles E. Bennett’s book, New Latin Grammar, covers it in-depth; “The Gerundive denotes _obligation_, _necessity_, etc.
Like. In linguistics, a participle (PTCP) is a nonfinite form of a verb which functions as an adjective or an adverb.
For example, in "boiled potato", boiled is the past passive participle of the verb boil, modifying the noun potato. In English, there are only two participial forms, the present active participle, formed with -ing, and the past passive participle, typically formed with -ed.
Sara is “doing” the action “to sing.” In the second sentence, “singing” is used as a gerund and “makes” is the verb. Note: A gerund will always be used as a noun and does not replace the progressive form of the verb.
Functions of Gerunds Gerunds as Subject. Because a gerund is a noun, it can be the subject of a sentence. Gerund. Gerunds & Gerundives. with thanks to David Cramer.
The gerund is a verbal noun, just as the participle is a verbal adjective. That is, just as the participle is a verbal form that functions as an adjective, the gerund is a verbal form that functions as a noun.
Explore hundreds of Spanish grammar topics by reading articles written by bilingual language experts. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjugation, pronunciation, spelling, and other language essentials are covered in the SpanishDict Grammar Guide. Gerundives are verbal adjectives, identical in form to the gerund, but having all three genders, all five cases, and both numbers.
They have the force of “needing to be x-ed” and are also known as the future passive participle (for details on participles, see Vergil’s Verb Tips: The Participle).
3) If the to is part of a noun + preposition combination. His addiction to gambling has caused a lot of stress for his family. Her great dedication to teaching inspires her students. Mother Theresa’s devotion to helping the poor brought her worldwide acclaim. Her reaction to winning the Oscar was priceless!.
NOTES: *Remember, you can use to + gerund, but the to MUST be a preposition that. As the last example shows, an adverb or adverbial phrase (but never an adjective) may be added to a gerund to qualify its meaning.
Deponent verbs also have gerunds which are formed as in the case of other verbs, and used in the same way, e.g. conando effecit, he managed (it) by trying.
Start studying Gerundive/Gerund practice. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A gerund is a verb used as a noun, as in "The Taming of the Shrew" or "the running of the bulls." The gerund in German is just the infinitive, capitalized.
(Like all nouns.) All gerunds are neuter, and when there’s a plural, it has no added ending or umlaut. You often see the gerund on signs, in both German and English: Rauchen tötet Smoking. Quirk et al ( note(c)) point out that the verb in the gerundive clause is cal led a gerund, then they state that the verbal noun is used only for the gerund clas s of nouns in –ing.
Etymology and pronunciation. The Modern English-ing ending, which is used to form both gerunds and present participles of verbs (i.e. in noun and adjective uses), derives from two different historical suffixes.
The gerund (noun) use comes from Middle English-ing, which is from Old English-ing, -ung (suffixes forming nouns from verbs). These in turn are from Proto-Germanic *-inga- *-unga.So, it is possible to use both infinitives and gerunds as subjects, but gerunds are much more commonly used as subjects.
Just pay attention to how the choice reflects on the tone and meaning of your sentences. Rule 2: Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as objects of a sentence.
You may say: “I enjoy drawing.” You may also say.The Gerund Phrase Recognize a gerund phrase when you see one. A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund, an ing word, and will include other modifiers and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the these examples.